DSM conducted four rounds of cryogenic testing on piezo-ceramic (PZT) stacks. The tests were completed as part of ongoing piezo actuation system product development efforts for DSM's Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs. The test plan and results are available for purchase for $950. The PZT vendors are not identified in the report.
Many PZT fabricators claim that multilayer stacks can be used at cryogenic temperatures. DSM tested multiple vendor's PZT stacks under varying cryogenic conditions. Driving the stacks with relatively high frequency oscillations appears to be particularly harmful.In order to offer piezo-actuators and piezo-motors that can operate at very low temperature, DSM has been investigating combinations of stack construction, lead attachment technique, and coating that will demonstrate reliable operation from room temperature down to cryogenic temperature.